Zoomify Images: Fig 13-01b Goat cranium/dentition: ventral view

Fig 13-01b Goat cranium (A, lateral view, right side). The sheep and goat are closely related species, and fragmentary remains of the two taxa can be difficult to distinguish. Boessneck and colleagues (Boessneck 1969; Boessneck et al. 1964) present the most comprehensive guide to the osteological distinctions that are evident on the postcranial skeleton. (B, ventral view the cranium has been sagittally split). The goat’s dental formula is 0/3.0/1.3/3.3/3. Since the publication of Boessneck’s work, researchers have attempted to identify distinguishing features of the dentition of sheep and goats. Payne (1985) identifies several distinctions that can be seen on the deciduous dentition, while Halstead, et al. (2002) identify differences on the mandibles and mandibular teeth of adult sheep and goats. Zeder and Pilaar (2010) assess the reliability of the criteria used to distinguish mandibles and mandibular teeth, while Zeder and Lapham (2010) assess the reliability of the postcranial criteria.